The spider

Introduction

Web en silk

The body

Sex and reproduction

The jaws and poison

Spider enemies

Blood circulation, the lungs and moulting

Literature and acknowledgements

The nerve system, sensory organs and legs

.

 

Literature

  1. W. van Katwijk, Spinnen van Nederland, 1976, Balkema - Rotterdam - The Netherlands, ISBN 90 6191 1028
  2. D. Jones, Spinnen, 1983, Thieme - Baarn - The Netherlands, ISBN 90 5210 121 3
  3. H. Pfletsinger, Spinnen, Thieme - Zutphen - The Netherlands, ISBN 9009 95020 2
  4. F. Sauer, J.Wunderlich, Die schönsten Spinnen Europas, 1991, Eichenweg 8, 8047 Karlsfeld, Germany, ISBN 3 923010 03 6
  5. B.&M. Baehr, Welche Spinne ist das?, 1987, Kosmos naturführer, Stuttgart, Germany, ISBN 3 440 05798 4
  6. H. Bellman, Spinnen beobachten, bestimmen, 1992, Naturbuch verlag, Augsburg, Germany, ISBN 3 89440 064 1
  7. E. Kullmann, H. Stern, Leben am seidenen Faden, Die rätselvolle welt der Spinnen, 1975, Verlagsgruppe Bertelsmann Verlag, Munchen, Germany, ISBN 90 222 0239 9
  8. M.J. Roberts, Spiders of Britain & northern Europe, 1995, Harper Collins Publishers, ISBN 000 219981 5
  9. M.J. Roberts, Spinnengids, 1998, Tirion, Baarn, ISBN 90 5210 268 6
  10. R.&.K. Preston-Mafham, Spiders of the world, 1984, Blandford, ISBN 0 7137 2392 0
  11. Journals published by the Werkgroep Inheemse Spinnen (WIS), Bollenbergen 45, 9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium
  12. H. Bellmann, Spinnentiere Europas, 1997, Kosmos, Stuttgart, Germany, ISBN 3-440-07025-5
  13. B. Simon - Brunett, The silken web, 1994, Reed books, Chatswood NSW, Australia, ISBN 0 7301 0401 X
  14. S. Heimer, Spinnen, 1997, Landbuch verlag, Hannover, Germany, ISBN 3 7842 0543 7
  15. W.J. Gertsch, American spiders, 1949, D. van Nostrand company, USA
  16. R. Mascord, Australian spiders, 1970, Reed, Artarmon, Australia, SBN 589 07065 7
  17. K.C. McKeown, Australian spiders, 1962, Sirius books, Australia
  18. W.S. Bristowe, The world of spiders, 1958, London

 

 

Acknowledgements

All pictures are made by the author except the ones noted with (number). These numbers refer to the literature above. Pictures noted with (bg) are electron microscope pictures donated by Bryan Goethals.

Many thanks to Bryan Goethals, André Hannema, Ronald Loggen, Gie Wijkmans and Anette Zahn for their critical remarks and corrections.

 

© Ed Nieuwenhuys, Badhoevedorp, The Netherlands, March 1999, Jan 2006

Internet: http://www.xs4all/~ednieuw

 

Ed Nieuwenhuys, January 2006

Home <------